Ergativity is Still Alive in Kaingang Language From South Brazil-Part 2

Research in the area of typological linguistics, that is, the study of the ways in which languages can differ from each other or the variation that language exhibits, has led to many theoretical advances made by contemporary linguistics. To illustrate, we can say that most modern advances in phonological theory emerged from the description of African languages. Ultimately, linguistic theory and languages are inseparably connected.

In the meantime, there is still a tendency for viewing everything “fix” in language, that is, to study linguistic phenomena as purely synchronic facts. Rather, natural languages are living things, and all living things change. So that, a language may lose a certain way of expressing, for example, the difference between subjects or subject/object, but, as pointed out by Scargill (1969), it will develop a new way “to replace what it has lost.”

In a word, in these series of articles we will discuss the possibility that Kaingáng has used consistently the agentive postposition tóg (see Wiesemann, 1972:104) as an ergative marker in independent clauses. For the most part, then, our only concern here is to show that Kaingáng displays at least some degree of ergativity in elementary transitive and intransitive clauses.

In what follows, we will examine the Kaingáng subject/object case-marking typology. The research proposed here is based on data from Southern Kaingáng dialogues and narratives published by FUNAI. Certainly, we will use further data which were collected in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.

Kaingáng nominal ergative marking: the split system

Let us begin our story by introducing anew the basic definitions. It is important that we have got the terms straight. As previously stated, the ergative case identifies with a special mark the subject (St) (not necessarily the agent) of the transitive verb, whereas the direct object (DO/O) of a …

My Last Baseball Game and a Quadruple Play

My baseball career started as a request from the sports master of my high school for a teacher to take responsibility for baseball as a new sport. I decided to give it a go. As a school Cricket coach, I had become tired of the long days in the sun umpiring these cricket games. Baseball gave me the opportunity to look after a team where the game ended after 90 minutes. I had never played the game but I was lucky enough to have the help of a baseball tragic to learn the game.

In the first years of the high school competition, the rules were modified. Firstly, there was no lead off for base running until the pitcher started his action. Secondly, each team had to have at least two pitchers because a pitcher could only pitch two innings at a time before being replaced. The next pitcher had to pitch to four batters before he could be replaced. The idea behind the modified rules was to allow all schools a chance to be competitive. There were few baseball clubs in Brisbane. But the schools near them would have been a great advantage if the full rules were used and baseball would have died as a school sport before it got off the ground.

So with the help of the baseball tragic, we taught the boys to bat, take a catch and simple fielding plays. Only one boy in the team had any baseball experience. He was turned into a catcher. We had two serviceable pitchers. The starting pitcher was a left handed who could throw a pitch that curled late. Our relief pitcher had a great fast ball and threw a good low inside pitch.

As a result, my school team won its way to the grand final, …

The Game of Chess – A Few Facts You Maybe Didn’t Know Yet

Chess, this exciting game of strategy and skills and originated in India, spans some 1500 years back in history. In the 6Th century AD it spread to Persia. While the Arabians took over Persia, chess had been taken up by the Muslim’s world and from there it reached Europe. In Europe, during the 15Th century chess was developed towards its present form and rules. Back in the 1800’s competitive chess became more and more noticeable. Throughout the 19th century, modern tournament play began and the very first world chess championship was scheduled in 1886. Throughout the time of the 20Th century the chess theory and the World Chess Federation (FIDE) was founded. The very first chess tournament event was held in the Great Britain, in London and surprisingly it was won by Adolf Anderssen, a player from Germany. Since the end of the 19th century the amount of annually held professional tournaments and competitions grew very fast. If you look closely at a chess board it can teach you the way the people lived in middle age times. Look at the method by which it is set up. After that review of the figures and the way they are used, you will soon recognize that chess is a historical past of medieval times – just in miniature.

The Europeans gave chess pieces the actual names we use them today, simply because this mirrored the way they were living. A thousand years ago they displayed the very way in which both, typical people and persons of rank were living their lives.

The Pawns on the board symbolize serfs, or simple the hard working lower folks. Presently there are a lot more of them on the board, compared to any other piece on the board and usually they are sacrificed to save …

Joana’s WoTLK Guide Review

It looks like Joana’s back yet again with another guide for WoW! Joana has been hard at work making a new leveling guide for Blizzard’s new expansion pack, Wrath Of The Lich King (WoTLK). I’ve been one of the few very lucky people to get the first sneak peak on this guide. Here’s my review from what I’ve seen so far..

Overall review:

Joana’s new WoTLK leveling guide comes at the same quality as his previous horde leveling guides (the 1-60 and 60-70 guides). Instructions are clear and the overall guide is extremely easy to understand and follow. The guide contains instructional videos, pictures and screenshots to help guide you through every step, exact coordinates, strategies, walkthroughs and everything you need to get through Northrend. He provides specific instructions on the fastest ways to level in Northrend.

What zones are covered?

This guide covers all zones in Northrend, including both starting zones, Howling Fjord and Borean Tundra. Joana has not only covered both of the aforementioned zones in detail, but also shows you which zone is better to start from to get through Northrend faster.

Is this for both Horde and Alliance?

Unfortunately, not both. This guide is only for Horde. Joana focuses all his efforts on Horde.

I hope my review has helped you, even if only a little. I really have nothing but positive things to say about this new guide of his. What more can you expect from the famous Joana? No doubt this will be highly popular and in demand once it’s 100% complete and released to the public in time for WoTLK’s release.

If you have any doubts, he also offers a money back guarantee which he honors. However, you won’t need to ask for a refund, or even think of asking for a refund …

Table Tennis Terms You Should Know Today

Being good in doing something doesn’t just fall on you knowing the practical aspect which is key for most sports, but you need to know some theory like knowing terms that are related to that sport. This not only gives you that feeling of a professional player, but also helps you in understanding the rules of the game. As well as knowing your Table and Paddle, you should know these.

Anti-topspin – a rubber type that deactivates spin and speed, returning a “dead” ball

Backhand – a stroke done directly in front of the body, with the racket turned so that the back of the hand faces the opponent

Backspin – a type of spin where, if struck with a normal racket position, the ball would not make it over the net

Block – a defensive shot done mostly against loops and smashes, where the racket is in a closed position to keep the ball on the table

Chop – a defensive shot that carries a tremendous amount of backspin

Closed – a racket angle that allows the top of the ball to be struck

Dead ball – a ball returned without any spin. Very difficult to execute, read, and return

Doubles – a format in table tennis where two people play on each side and must alternate turns at striking the ball

Drive – an offensive shot used mostly as a setup or in rallies, where the racket is in a normal position and the ball is struck at a medium pace

Drop shot – a surprise shot where the ball is placed precisely near the net

Expedite rule – after a time limit (10 minutes) has expired during a single game, the receiver automatically wins the point if he/she returns the ball successfully 13 times in a row. …

Where Should I Level My WoW Monk From 25-30?

At this level bracket you’ve got three options: Arathi Highlands, Northern Stranglethorn and Stonetalon Mountains. Two of these (Arathi and Stranglethorn) are on the Eastern Kingdoms continent, while Stonetalon is off by itself in Kalimdor. That’s something to consider as you make your choice, though I’m focusing mostly on questing enjoyability and ease of progression here.

Arathi Highlands: This zone is practically as it was before the cataclysm aside from a few small functional changes. That makes the questing here is pretty vanilla (and a bit disconnected from the rest of the world), but it is a good zone for gathering. It feels a bit like the land that time forgot, which means it could be a good zone to hit once the expansion comes out (just you, ore, and a bunch of raptors!). However, there’s only one flight path for each faction, so it’s not necessarily the best for convenience.

Northern Stranglethorn: This is the top half of what used to be just Stranglethorn, but the zone’s now divided by a massive waterfall/whirpool. Accordingly, the questing in this zone is completely new and quite fun. There are also two flight paths here for both factions, which makes things a little faster. However, the revamp and easy progression to the Cape of Stranglethorn are sure to make this a frequented zone when the expansion is released.

Stonetalon Mountains: This zone also saw massive changes with the cataclysm, meaning the quests are fresh and fun. Quests include some strong roleplaying elements surrounding the Horde and Alliance battles for resources and territory. Since the zone is obviously quite mountainous, there are five flight paths for each faction here, which makes getting around much more efficient. And unsurprisingly, the zone is heavy on mining. Like Stranglethorn, this place could see a lot of …

7 Things You Need to Know Before Playing Rummy

Have you ever wondered why rummy has been so popular? Or why are there so many variants of the game?

Sometimes, when something is simple, is it very easy to follow. So, when more people start following it, obviously the popularity increases, right?

That’s exactly the case with rummy too. The rules of the game are so simple that you can quickly learn and start playing. As more people have been playing, there are so many variants of the game.

Now, with several online rummy sites, the fun of the game has increased manifold. But are you aware of certain things that you should know before you start learning how to play rummy.

#1: Rummy rules are the same both online and offline

A common misconception about online rummy is that it is quite different from the offline game. Except for few changes to suit online players, the basic rummy rules or rules of any versions of rummy remain the same.

#2: Online rummy is time-based

One of the important features that differentiate online rummy from its offline counterpart is that it is time-based. As a beginner, not only should you learn how to play rummy, but also learn to play within the stipulated time.

#3: Online game is fast-paced

Since the online game requires you to discard or pick cards at a fast pace, so that you don’t lose your turn, you are expected to learn rummy as a game of quick evaluation and quick decisions. This time-bound feature makes the online format faster as compared to the offline version.

#4: Free games to learn and play better

Online rummy sites offer free games for beginners or players who wish to play for fun. Some sites offer unlimited free-rolls from where you learn how to play rummy better. You …

Business Growth – When To Ally And When To Acquire

At he core of your company’s strategy lies a dilemma, wrapped in a problem, inside a challenge. As companies find it increasingly tougher to achieve and sustain growth, they have placed their faith in acquisitions and alliances to boost sales, profits, and, importantly, stock prices. That’s most evident in developed countries. American companies, for instance, created a titanic acquisitions and alliances wave by announcing 74,000 acquisitions and 57,000 alliances from 1996 through 2001. During those six years, CEOs signed, roughly, an acquisition and a partnership every hour each day and drove up the acquisition’s combined value to $12 trillion. The pace of collaboration has slowed since then. U.S. firms struck only 7,795 acquisitions and 5,048 alliances in 2002 as compared with 12,460 and 10,349, respectively, in 2000, according to data from Thomson Financial. But as companies gear up for greater growth, collaboration is once again high on priority lists. In fact, firms clinched more acquisition deals (8,385) and alliance agreements (5,789) in 2003 than in the previous year.

There’s a problem, however, and it refuses to go away. Most acquisitions and alliances fail. A few may succeed, but acquisitions, on average, either destroy or don’t add shareholder value, and alliances typically create very little wealth for shareholders. Company’s share prices fall by between 0.34% and 1% in the ten days after they announce acquisitions, according to three recent studies in the Strategic Management Journal. (The target companies’ stock prices rise by 30%, on average, implying that their shareholders take home most of the value.) Unlike wines, acquisitions don’t get better over time. Acquiring firms experience a wealth loss of 10% over five years after the merger completion, according to a study in the Journal of Finance. To add to CEOs’ woes, research suggests that 40% to 55% of alliances break …

Book Report Project – Game Show Style

Need to do a book report? Why not make a game of it? What game you ask? Try doing a book report like the game Jeopardy. You can set up the book report information making the answers for all your information you present and ask your audience or teacher to guess the questions.

You can do easy points as the least dollar amount such as the characters and the more important points from the book or the conflicts can be the most expensive questions or answers.

Your fellow students will get into the report and your presentation a lot more. You could even offer candy or something like that as part of a reward for guessing answers correctly and the person with the most candy could use that to bet for the final jeopardy or double jeopardy questions. You could make those harder or the most important information.

This may even encourage other students to read your book if you make it enjoyable enough and very interesting for everyone involved. You will enjoy creating this project as well. If your audience or teacher will not be interactive with you for this style of book report presentation it will still work and be a lot of fun.

This may seem strange but give your answer with information about your characters. The question will be the name of the character. Describe the time the story takes place. The questions will be the actual time frame such as the 1930 time period.

You can create a poster board that shows categories about your book such as characters, location, conflicts, problems or whatever the book is about. As you talk about the answer, you could have a flap on the poster board and say here is the question and flip up the flat that …

Kwanzaa Party Games Celebrating in Style and Fun

Kwanzaa is a fantastic occasion to celebrate. If you’re having a party, here are a few game ideas that will add to the fun.

“Mamba” Kwanzaa Party Game

This game is lots of fun, and requires players to work together as a team. It is especially good if lots of children are playing. All that’s required is a fairly big area (around 10 metres square) that has been marked off. The children gather in the marked-off area, and one is selected to be the Mamba. The Mamba must try and catch the other players, who must stay within the marked-off area. Any player who runs outside this area must leave the game. When a player is caught by the Mamba, they join onto the snake by placing their hands around the Mamba’s waist. Only the snake’s head (the original Mamba) can catch people, but as more players get caught the children making up the body of the Mamba can entrap other players. The game ends when all children have been eaten by the Mamba. The last player to get captured wins a small prize.

“Earth, Air, Fire, Water” Kwanzaa Party Game

This fun Kwanzaa party game is best played with a fairly large group of children. All that’s required is a tennis ball and a decent-sized area to play in. The children sit in a circle, and one is chosen to start. They must throw the tennis-ball to someone else in the circle, calling out either “Earth”, “Air”, “Fire” or “Water”. If Earth is called, the player who catches the ball needs to name an animal that lives on the Earth (the ground). If Air is called, they must name an animal that can fly. If Fire is called, they must remain silent. And if Water is called, they must …